Introduction to Fortran programming language.
Fortran: A computer-based programming language developed for the numerical, Scientific, Engineering computing applications.
It is also widely used for mathematical proposes.
Why so-called Fortran?
Fortran’s name is produced from two words namely formula translation.
Who discovered the Fortran as a programming language?
The idea of this language was given by John Warner Backus.
He was a computer scientist in IBM. Together with his IBM team members released the first widely used High-level Language in 1957.
After that various versions of Fortran came.
The different versions of the Fortran programming language.
1 Fortran I: It was discovered 1950-1957. First High-Level Language.
The first compiler runs on an IBM 704. It was more efficient and easily used by the assembler.
2 Fortran II and Fortran III in 1958.
3 Fortran IV in 1961 with improvements in the implementation of the common and equivalence statements.
4 Fortran in1962. and Fortran66 in 1967.
5 Fortran in 1980, finely in 1978, it was formally standardized by ANSI as Fortran-77.
Lots of statements like DO LOOP, IF statement, Then statement etc. were implements.
This version is now worldwide adopted by computer manufacturers.
After that various versions released in years like Fortran90, Fortran95, Fortran2000, 2008, a new version may be in 2018.
Let’s take a very short tour of the Fortran programming language.
Characters used in Fortran77:
¹ Special characters + − . () = : , * $ /
² Decimal digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
³ Letter All alphabets A— Z (All upper case ) and a—z (All lower case)
The first released of Fortran for IBM 704 contained 32 statements ( comes from a report) Like:
GO TO, computed GO TO, ASSIGN and assigned GO TO Statements
DIMENSION and EQUIVALENCE statements
DO loops Statement
Formatted Input and output statements: FORMAT, READ, READ INPUT TYPE, WRITE, WRITE OUTPUT TYPE, PRINT, PUNCH
Unformatted input and output statements: READ TYPE, READ DRUM, WRITE TYPE and WRITE DRUM
Others input and output statements: END FILE, REWIND, BACKSPACE, PAUSE, STOP, CONTINUE
The column in Fortran programming language: let’s see a few little columns with their works in Fortran.
C or * in this column indicates a comment
Statement labels that are used to identify lines
As we know that Fortran is a programming language, therefore, lots of users have written libraries of useful and some great standard Fortran programs.
As it is a High-Level language It has been used for many purposes like,
Analysis of scientific data, Arithmetic operations, Storm drainage design, In making Aeroplane structure, in making of bridge design.
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